Ageing changes in the skin are a group of common conditions and developments that occur as people grow older.
Skin changes are among the most visible signs of ageing. Evidence of increasing age includes wrinkles and sagging skin. Whitening or graying of the hair is another obvious sign of ageing.
Skin changes are related to environmental factors, genetic makeup, nutrition, and other factors. The greatest single factor, though, is sun exposure. This can be seen by comparing areas of your body that have regular sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight.
Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced skin damage. Blue-eyed, fair-skinned people show more ageing skin changes than people with darker, more heavily pigmented skin.
With ageing, the outer skin layer (epidermis) thins even though the number of cell layers remains unchanged.
Wrinkles - Most wrinkles are associated with ageing changes in skin. Ageing of the skin and related structures (hair and nails) is a natural process. Nothing can be done to decrease the rate of skin ageing, but many environmental factors will increase the rate.
Other common causes of wrinkles are:
- Genetic (family) influences
- Normal ageing changes in the skin
- Sun exposure
Frequent exposure to sunshine results in premature skin wrinkling and increased pigmentation (sliver spots). It also increases the likelihood of skin cancer. Exposure to cigarette smoke is another environmental factor that increases wrinkling of the skin.
Changes in pigment - The number of pigment-containing cells (melanocytes) decreases, but the remaining melanocytes increase in size. Ageing skin thus appears thinner, more pale, and translucent. Large pigmented spots (called age spots, liver spots, or lentigos) may appear in sun-exposed areas.
Changes in connective tissue - Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis and is especially pronounced in sun-exposed areas (solar elastosis). Elastosis produces the leathery, weather-beaten appearance common to farmers, sailors, and others who spend a large amount of time outdoors.
Changes in blood vessels - The blood vessels of the dermis become more fragile, which in turn leads to bruising, bleeding under the skin, cherry angiomas, and similar conditions.
Changes in glands - Sebaceous glands produce less oil as you age. Men experience a minimal decrease, usually after the age of 80. Women gradually produce less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the skin moist, resulting in dryness and itchiness.
The sweat glands produce less sweat. This makes it harder to keep cool, and you become at increased risk for becoming overheated or developing heat stroke.
Other changes such as skin tags, warts, and other blemishes are more common in older people.
Effect of ageing Changes
As you age, you are at increased risk for skin injury. Your skin is thinner, more fragile, and the protective subcutaneous fat layer is lost. In addition, your ability to sense touch, pressure, vibration, heat and cold may be reduced. Thus, your ageing skin is at higher risk for injury.
Rubbing or pulling on the skin can cause skin tears. Fragile blood vessels are easily broken. Bruises, flat collections of blood (purpura), and raised collections of blood (hematomas) may form after even a minor injury.
This is most easily seen on the outside surface of the forearms, but can occur anywhere on the body. Skin changes and loss of subcutaneous fat, combined with a tendency to be less active, as well as some nutritional deficiencies and other illnesses contribute to pressure ulcers.
Ageing skin repairs itself more slowly than younger skin. Wound healing may be up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes, blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, and similar factors also affect healing.
A detailed examination of the skin will be performed. Various equipments to check the extent of wrinkles may also be sought especially to assess degree of improvement. If wrinkles are accompanied by a skin lesion that has changed in appearance, diagnostic tests may include a skin lesion biopsy.
Causes & Symptoms
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells
Cells are the building blocks of living things. Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them and die when the body does not need them. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly. It can also occur when cells "forget" how to die.
There are many different kinds of cancers. Cancer can develop in almost any organ or tissue, such as the lung, colon, breast, skin, bones or nerve tissue.
There are many causes of cancers, including:
- Benzene and other chemicals
- Poisonous mushrooms
- Poison that can grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins)
- Genetic Predisposition
- Chromosomal Abnormality
However, the cause of many cancers remains unknown. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of gastric cancer, but in the U.S. this type of cancer is very rare. Differences in diet may play a role.
Some types of cancers include:
- Brain cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Lung Cancer
- Colon Cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Kidney cancer
- Liver cancer
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Ovarian cancer
- Skin cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Uterine cancer
Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the tumor. For example, lung cancer can cause coughing, shortness of breath or chest pain. Colon cancer often causes diarrhea, constipation and blood in the stool.
Some cancers may not have any symptoms at all. In certain cancers, such as gallbladder cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.
The following symptoms can occur with most cancers:
- Loss of appetite
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
Like symptoms, the signs of cancer vary based on the type and location of the tumor. Common tests include the following:
- Biopsy of the tumor
- Blood chemistries
- Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia)
- Chest x-ray
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- CT scan
Most cancers are diagnosed by biopsy. Depending on the location of the tumor, the biopsy may be a simple procedure or a serious operation. Most patients with cancer have CT scans to determine the exact location and size of the tumor or tumors.
A cancer diagnosis is difficult to cope with. It is important, however, that you discuss the type, size and location of the cancer with your doctor when you are diagnosed. You would also want to ask about treatment options, along with their benefits and risks.
It's a good idea to have someone with you at the doctor's office to help you get through the diagnosis. If you have trouble asking questions after hearing about your diagnosis, the person you bring with you can ask them for you.
Treatment also varies based on the type of cancer and its stage. The stage of a cancer refers to how much it has grown and whether the tumor has spread from its original location.
- If the cancer is confined to one location and has not spread, the most common goal for treatment is surgery and cure. This is often the case with skin cancers, as well as cancers of the lung, breast and colon.
- If the tumor has spread to local lymph nodes only, sometimes these can also be removed.
- If surgery cannot remove all of the cancer, the options for treatment include radiation, chemotherapy, or both. Some cancers require a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
Stem Cell Therapy
Numerous clinical trials are going on all over the world, including India using stem cells from various sources.
We, at ReeCure offer you therapy using stem cells using our proprietary technology.
These stem cells could be of various types viz. Hematopoietic (CD 34+), Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are processed and isolated using Good Manufacturing (GMP) and Good Lab Practices (GLP) and in accordance with AABB standards.
After years of extensive research and systematic compilation and collation of relevant data (through its research division), ReeLabs is now supremely confident of not only reversing the disease process of the affected patient but also improving the quality of life manifold. Stem cells produced by ReeLabs are completely safe, non-toxic, easy to administer and totally devoid of side effects with an excellent probability of homing and engraftment with parent cell, tissue or organ. The eminent panel of scientists and researchers at ReeLabs work exhaustively to design accurate treatment protocols that have yielded excellent results in most cases.
These stem cells are procured from various sources including bone marrow, cord blood fat etc. as per the requirement of the patient.
The application of stem cell therapy in cancers is either in treating the primary disease is limited.
It however plays a pivotal role in the regeneration of the organ afflicted with cancer that has been terribly damaged due to cancer and various forms of therapies.