Home» Stem Cell Banking» What are the Best Sources of Stem Cells?

    1. Why Should I Bank Placenta (Chorion) and /or Amniotic Sac along with Cord Blood Cord Tissue Stem cells?
    2. The purpose of banking Stem Cells is to use them at a later date if required. Chorion (Placenta) has 20 times more Stem Cells than any other source available during birth. Other sources like cord tissue has a specific type of Stem cell each. Chorion has 5 different types of Stem Cells which are the most useful for reducing the biological age and treat disorders of the child at a later date.

      If Stem Cells from Chorion (Placenta) are not banked then you are losing/discarding 95% of the Stem Cells available at the birthing and storing only 5%. Missing this once in a lifetime opportunity would be a criminal waste of precious biological resource.

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      Placental, chorionic and amniotic sac membranes contain different kinds of stem cells that can be used in varied disorders. Hence the gamut of diseases that can be treated with a combination of these sources is enormously increased. Eg) CB used to treat hematopoietic disorders, currently the only proven indication of stem cells. Cord tissue, amnion has mesenchymal stromal stem cells that can treat degenerative disorders like diabetes, renal failure , liver cirrhosis, osteoarthritis etc. Placenta chorion has an enormous quantity of both hematopoietic as well as mesenchymal stem cells that generally covers treatment of all disorders. However, every source can contribute to a specific lineage (family) of cells in appropriate conditions. Hence all of them are important and should ideally be banked.

      The placenta is useful source of stem cells that offer advantages in terms of proliferation and plasticity when compared with adult cells and permit to overcome the ethical and safety concerns inherent in embryonic stem cells. In addition, the placenta has the advantage of containing epithelia, haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. These stem cells possess immunosuppressive properties and have the capacity to suppress in vivo inflammatory responses better than any other source.

      References:

      1. Bárcena A, Muench MO, Kapidzic M, Gormley M, Goldfien GA, Fisher SJ. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Transfusion. 2011;51(Suppl 4):94S-105S. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03372.x.
      2. Gupta A, Kedige SD, Jain K. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics. International Journal of Biomaterials. 2015;2015:274082. doi:10.1155/2015/274082.
      3. Antoniadou E, David AL. Placental stem cells. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Feb;31:13-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Sep 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 26547389.


    3. When Cord Tissue stem cells can be multiplied, then why should I choose the other sources of stem cells?
    4. There is a limit to the multiplication without loss of efficacy. It is always a beneficial if you start with more Stem Cells. Stem Cells from Chorion (Placenta) are very powerful and of all types so that their multiplication is much better.

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      Not only CT, but all stem cells can be multiplied. However, frequent multiplication brings down the quality, efficiency and potency of stem cells. There is no use of having a huge quantity (which generally happens over prolonged multiplication), hence that is not an option. Moreover, multiplication beyond a point wont be possible, hence different sources of stem cells can contribute to generating a robust repository and treat many more disorders.

      References:

      1. June seok heo Et al. Comparison of molecular profiles of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta and adipose tissue 2016 Jan; 37(1): 115–125.
      2. Antoniadou E, David AL. Placental stem cells. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Feb;31:13-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Sep 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 26547389.
      3. Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny And Edyta Wrobel. Perinatal Sources Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Wharton’s Jelly, Amnion And Chorion. Volume 16 (2011) Pp 493-514


    5. Is there any evidence to show the comparison between Cord Tissue stem cells and Placental stem cells in outcome of treatment for organ/tissue related disorders?
    6. There is a lot of literature including videos to this effect.



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      As explained earlier, stem cells derived from various sources has specific lineage commitment and hence stem cells derived from cord tissue and placental tissue will have different potentials and in different clinical applications. There are many studies that shows MSCs of different origins or prepared under different conditions may express different functions and have different therapeutic potentials.

      References:

      1. Alan T. Stem Cell Therapies in Clinical Trials: Progress and Challenges. Cell Stem Cell. Jul 2015; 17(1): 11-22.
      2. Rohban R, Pieber TR. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Regeneration: Tissue Specificity and Regenerative Potential. Stem Cells International. 2017;2017:5173732. doi:10.1155/2017/5173732.
      3. Yongzhao Zhu1,2, Yinxue Yang1, Yaolin Zhang1,4, Guiliang Hao1,4, Ting Liu1, Libin Wang1, Placental mesenchymal stem cells of fetal and maternal origins demonstrate different therapeutic potentials Zhu et al. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2014, 5:48


    7. Are there any research articles available in the world of placental stem cells and their applications?
    8. There are lot of research articles related to Placental Stem cells and their potential therapeutic application in different health conditions. The research articles are published by different Journals.

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      References:

      1. Alan T. Stem Cell Therapies in Clinical Trials: Progress and Challenges. Cell Stem Cell. Jul 2015; 17(1): 11-22.
      2. Igor Nazarov (link to article) - aff-1 Et al. Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells from Human Placenta Demonstrate High Therapeutic Potential. 1066-5099/2012
      3. Chih-Cheng Chien et al In vitro differentiation of human placenta-derived multipotent cells into hepatocyte-like cells Stem Cells, 2006
      4. Marcus AJ, Woodbury D. Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard. J Cell Mol Med. 2008 Jun;12(3):730-42.
      5. Ilancheran S, Moodley Y, Manuelpillai U. Human fetal membranes: a source of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair?Placenta. 2009 Jan;30(1):2-10.


    9. If Cord Tissue stem cells can match the other family members, then why should I choose Amniotic Sac or Chorion (Placenta) banking?
    10. Cord Tissue only contains one type of stem cells called Mesenchymal Stem Cells which can be used in the treatment of limited disorders. On the other hand, stem cells from the Amniotic Sac and Chorion (Placenta) are pluripotent, meaning they contain mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. This helps in the treatment of a range of disorders.

      We are looking at the use of the banked Stem Cells for the child or sibling. For Stem Cells to be used by other family members, HLA matching will have to be done regardless of the source. Stem Cells from Chorion are by far the best for use.

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      Stem cells derived from various sources has specific lineage commitment and hence stem cells derived from cord tissue and placental tissue will have different potentials and in different clinical applications. Cord tissue only has limited amount of MSCs that can be multiplied to a certain extent, hence can be only used sparingly. However, AS and Chorion (especially) have different kind of stem cells and together maximum disorders can be treated. Also since Chorion has got embryonic stem cell markers, the chances of matching with family members is remarkably enhanced as compared to cord tissue.

      References:

      1. Alan T. Stem Cell Therapies in Clinical Trials: Progress and Challenges. Cell Stem Cell. Jul 2015; 17(1): 11-22.
      2. Rohban R, Pieber TR. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Regeneration: Tissue Specificity and Regenerative Potential. Stem Cells International. 2017;2017:5173732. doi:10.1155/2017/5173732.
      3. Yongzhao Zhu Et Al. Placental mesenchymal stem cells of fetal and maternal origins demonstrate different therapeutic potentials Zhu et al. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2014, 5:48


    11. Is there any evidence published in any journal of Placental stem cells used in Haematological disorders in Humans /mammals?
    12. Yes, placenta derived stem cells are reported to be clinically useful in hematological disorders. In fact in one such literature, the quantity is 100 times more*.


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      Reference:

      1. Lee LK, Ueno M, Van Handel B, Mikkola HK. Placenta as a newly identified source of hematopoietic stem cells. Curr Opin Hematol. 2010 Jul;17(4):313-8. doi: 10.1097/MOH.0b013e328339f295. Review. PubMed PMID: 20571394; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929561.


    13. Is Placenta Banking approved by the Government of India?
    14. At this point only Stem Cells from cord blood are approved. There is no specific approval from F.D.A. w.r.t banking Stem Cells from Cord Tissue yet it is done. However there is no Law which prevents banking from other sources including Cord Tissue.


    15. Why Should I bank Chorion (Placenta) when Amniotic Sac stem cells have the same properties?
    16. The quality, quantity and variety of Stem Cells from Chorion (Placenta) is far greater than those from Amniotic Sac. Not banking stem cells from the Chorion (Placenta) means wasting a very valuable source and a one time opportunity.

      The reverse is however true. If you bank Stem Cells from the Chorion (Placenta) you need not bank the Stem Cells from Amniotic Sac.

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      References:

      1. Pasquinelli, G., Tazzari, P., Ricci, F., Vaselli, C., Buzzi, M., Conte, R., Orrico, R., Foroni, L., Stella, L., Alviano, F., Bagnara, G.P. and Lucarelli, E. (2007) Ultrastructural characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells derived from bone marrow and term placenta. Ultrastructural Pathology, 31, 23-31. doi:10.1080/01913120601169477 [Citation Time(s):3]
      2. Soncini, M., Vertua, E., Gibelli, L., Zorzi, F., Denegri, M., Albertini, A., Wengler, G.S. and Parolini, O. (2007) Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal cells from human fetal membranes. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 1, 296-305.doi:10.1002/term.40 [Citation Time(s):1]
      3. In’tAnker, P.S., Scherjon, S.A., Kleijburg-van der Keur, C., de Groot-Swings, G.M., Claas, F.H., Fibbe, W.E. and Kanhai, H.H. (2004) Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells of fetal or maternal origin from human placenta. Stem Cells, 22, 1338-1345. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2004-0058 [Citation Time(s):3]
      4. Miki, T., Lehmann, T., Cai, H., Stolz, D.B. and Strom, S.C. (2005) Stem cells characteristics of amniotic ephitelial cells. Stem Cells, 23, 1549-1559. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2004-0357 [Citation Time(s):2]
      5. Han, K., Lee, J.E., Kwon, S.J., Park, S.Y., Shim, S.H., Kim, H., Moon, J.H., Suh, C.S. and Lim, H.J. (2008) Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source for uterine stem cell therapy. Cell Proliferation, 4, 1709-1725. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2008.00553.x [Citation Time(s):1]


    17. Has ReeLabs done retrieval cases with Placental stem cells for treatment in disorders mentioned in the Characteristics and Advantages of Different Sources of Stem Cells slide?
    18. ReeLabs has filed 2 International Patents on the extraction and use of Stem Cells derived from Chorion (Placenta). There Stem Cells have been used in the treatment of various disorders. However since we have started Stem Cells banking from Chorion (Placenta) recently, there is no retrieval case as of now.


    19. There are plenty of treatable disorders using Cord Tissue, especially with a positive family history of a particular disorder, example Cardiomyopathy, diabetes or muscular dystrophy. Also disorders like osteoarthritis, stroke, renal failure, and fractures can also be treated with cord tissue. In that case, why should I choose Chorion (Placenta) when Cord Tissue stem cells have a definite role in Cardiomyopathy?
    20. Each source has their own potential use and limitation, Family history of any disorder doesn’t mean that the person may not develop any other complications in future. It is better to store stem cells from all possible sources, which can be used on to treat a wide range of disorders.

      There are many scientific publications related to used of Stem cells from different sources in different disorders. Stem cells have been have been known to be tissue specific or lineage specific when it comes to regenerative capabilities. Researchers and clinicians have been exploring application of stem cells in treating various disorders on a regular basis.

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      There is a lot of scientific evidence related to potential use of stem cells. Some are listed below for your information.

      References:

      1. Jieun Jung et al., Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote hepatic regeneration in CCl4 -injured rat liver model via increased autophagic mechanism.Stem Cells, 2013
      2. Jean Marc Muller et al., Mesenchymal stromal cells’ role in tumor microenvironment: involvement of signaling pathways Cancer Biology & Medicine, 2017
      3. Manuelpillai U, Moodley Y, Borlongan CV, Parolini O. Amniotic membrane and amniotic cells: potential therapeutic tools to combat tissue inflammation and fibrosis? Placenta. 2011 Oct;32Suppl 4:S320-5]
      4. Götherström C, Westgren M, Shaw SW, Aström E, Biswas A, Byers PH, Mattar CN, Graham GE, Taslimi J,Ewald U, Fisk NM, Yeoh AE, Lin JL, Cheng PJ, Choolani M, Le Blanc K, Chan JK. Pre- and Postnatal Transplantation of Fetal Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Two-Center Experience. Stem Cells Transl Med.doi:10.5966/sctm.2013-0090
      5. Georges Makhoul, Ray C.J. Chiu, Renzo Cecere,Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Unique Source for Cellular Cardiomyoplasty. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery Volume 95, Issue 5 , Pages 1827-1833, May 2013.
      6. Jones GN, Moschidou D, Abdulrazzak H, Kalirai BS, Vanleene M, Osatis S, Shefelbine SJ, Horwood NJ, Marenzana M, De Coppi P, Bassett JH, Williams GR, Fisk NM, Guillot PV. Potential of Human Fetal Chorionic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Stem Cells Dev. 2013doi:10.1089/scd.2013.0132.
      7. Koob TJ, Rennert R, Zabek N, Massee M, Lim JJ, Temenoff JS, Li WW, Gurtner G. Biological properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion composite graft: implications for chronic wound healing. Int Wound J. 2013 Oct;10(5):493-500.
      8. Miki T, Grubbs B. Therapeutic potential of placenta-derived stem cells for liver diseases: Current status and perspectives. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013 Nov 18. doi: 10.1111/jog.12213.
      9. Santiago RouraEmail author,Josep-Maria Pujal,Carolina Gálvez-Montón and Antoni Bayes-Genis The role and potential of umbilical cord blood in an era of new therapies: a review Stem Cell Research & Therapy20156:123
      10. Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue and Haiping He Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Their advantages and potential clinical utility World J Stem Cells. 2014 Apr 26; 6(2): 195–202.


    21. Why is the usage of the Placental stem cells in treatment of disorders NOT approved by US FDA yet and when is it likely to happen, since the outcome is believed to be superior as compared to other sources of stem cells?
    22. As of now in India only Cord Blood and hematopoietic indications (leukemia, thalassemia, etc.) is the approved indications for use of stem cells. Everything else is research based.

      However, The US FDA has recently granted approval to various stem cells labs in Israel (Pluristem Inc.) and many other countries for mass production of human-placenta-derived stem cell products. Many regulatory authorities have started considering placenta as an invaluable source of stem cells. Hence clearly the US FDA had embraced placental stem cells.

      As per citations, published research has proved beyond doubt that placenta is the number one source of stem cells. It’s only a matter of time when that shall be acknowledged by the Indian FDA as well.